Iannaccone T., Landucci L., Tugnoli A., Salzano E., Cozzani V. Sustainability of cruise ship fuel systems: Comparison among LNG and diesel technologies, Journal of Cleaner Production, 2020
Aneziris O., Koromila IA., Nivolianitou Z. A systematic literature review on LNG safety at ports, Safety Science 124, 2020.
Abstract: In this paper, a systematic literature review on safety and risk assessment at ports storing and transferring liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been performed. In addition, regulations, standards and guidelines for assessing hazards and risks of LNG storage at ports and during bunkering are presented. Legislation on safety concerns LNG storage tanks, trucks, buffer ships and LNG fuelled ships. 35 legislation documents have been analyzed and reviewed in this paper. A further literature review has been conducted; 23 articles in English were selected for final analysis, distributed between the years 2008 and 2018. The analysis pointed out scientific and harmonization gaps. Safety and hazard zones should be further studied and investigated, in case of various LNG bunkering modes and storage capacities.
Pio G., Salzano E. The effect of ultra-low temperature on the flammability limits of a methane/air/diluent mixtures, Journal of Hazardous Materials 362: 224–229, 2019.
Abstract: Natural gas represents an attractive fuel for industrialized and developing countries seeking an alternative to petroleum. Due to economic and safety considerations, liquefied natural gas (LNG) at cryogenic conditions is preferred for storage and transportation. The main drawback is the poor understanding of the physical and chemical phenomena that occur at the storage conditions of liquid methane, i.e. at ultra-low temperatures around 110 K and, if released, at temperatures below ambient. In this work, a procedure to evaluate the laminar
burning velocity, the flammability limit (FL) and the limiting oxygen concentration (LOC) of methane-air-diluent mixtures based on detailed kinetic mechanism at ultra-low temperatures is proposed. The estimation of the FL was obtained with the limiting burning velocity theory. The effects of inert content (extinguishing) and agent (N2, H2O and CO2) on FL were evaluated and compared with data retrieved from the literature. The agreement between experimental observation and model results from 200 K–300 K incentivizes the adoption of the new
procedure for further studies of fuel reactivity and safety parameters. Moreover, the proposed procedure may be suitable for the estimation of the safety parameters of complex fuel mixtures whose composition is closer to the actual values of LNG.
Pio G., Salzano E. Flammability parameters of liquified natural gas. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 56: 424-429, 2018.
Abstract: The use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is constantly growing. However, safety issues regarding cryogenic storage and transportation systems are still to be fully resolved. In particular, the evaluation of the efficiency of inerting systems for low-temperature LNG vapour is essential. In this work, the variation of the flammability range (in terms of lower and upper flammability limits and minimum oxygen concentration) obtained by adding nitrogen to pure air for some representative LNG mixtures has been evaluated at ambient temperature and at temperatures below 0 °C by using a detailed kinetic model entitled KIBO, which has been proved to be reliable for the description of C0C4 reactions in oxidative conditions, and by the limiting burning velocity theory. Strong differences are reported among pure methane and natural gas mixtures for all the investigated temperatures. The effect of composition is therefore relevant. Furthermore, the obtained results suggest that the lower flammability limit is determined by thermal aspects at high temperature only, whereas at low temperature, kinetic limitations are more relevant.
Conference Papers (peer-reviewed)
Gerbec M., Aneziris O. Uncertainties in Failure Rates of LNG Bunkering Risk Assessment. In Proceedings of the 30th European Safety and Reliability Conference and 15th Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management Conference (ESREL 2020 – PSAM 15), 1 – 6 November 2020, Venice, Italy.
Abstract: The use of LNG (Liquefied Natural gas) is spreading in the maritime industry due to its low environmental impacts, as a replacement of the maritime oil. Safety of LNG bunkering for ships is subject of a considerable attention by ship operators, port operators and competent authorities, since bunkering operations are carried out in the ports or in their proximity. There is a limited number of LNG bunkering specific risk assessment studies in the literature. Our interest was in the survey of failure rate data used for bunkering interface equipment (arms, hoses), their original sources, considered ignition probabilities and safety equipment as well as human performance
assumptions used by the studies in order to address the related uncertainties. Seven quantitative risk assessment (QRA) studies have been considered, eight data sources (e.g., guidelines) and 42 data failure rate data sets for loading arms and hoses. Failure rates uncertainty spans from two to four orders of magnitude. Similarly, in case of ignition probabilities and equipment & human's performance, large differences were encountered among the models which have been used in the seven QRA studies. Results obtained suggest that data sources and methods do not specify explicitly equipment boundaries, internal or external causes, and bunkering safety systems.
Aneziris O., Gerbec M., Koromila IA., Nivolianitou Z., Pilo F., Salzano E. Risk Assessment for LNG storage and bunkering at ports. In Proceedings of the 30th European Safety and Reliability Conference and 15th Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management Conference (ESREL 2020- PSAM 15), 1 – 6 November 2020, Venice, Italy.
Abstract: In this paper the main achievements of the project entitled “Sustainable Performance of LNG-based maritime mobility” (SUPER-LNG) financed by the Adriatic Ionian Interreg framework will be outlined. The project deals with safety and security issues in ports of the Adriatic and Ionian area owing to the increasing use of LNG as marine fuel; LNG tends to replace conventional fuels by contributing to the environmental emissions reduction leading, thus, to more sustainable shipping. In the framework of the project, guidelines were developed for risk assessment and emergency planning of LNG facilities and operations at ports. To that end a training programme has been created with the aim to mainly promote safety and to transfer knowledge of the LNG fuel chain to stakeholders, such as port operators, maritime instructors, port authorities, and stakeholders in planning, licensing, and emergency management. The situation of LNG bunkering at ports, as well as the guidelines and the training program developed, will be presented and discussed in the present work.
Aneziris O., Koromila IA., Nivolianitou Z. Review of Risk Assessment Guidelines for LNG Ship Bunkering. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Risk Analysis and Crisis Response (RACR 2019), 15-19 October 2019, Athens, Greece.
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to analyze in detail the existing guidelines issued for assessing the risks appearing during the bunkering process of LNG-fueled ships. Due to the potential of major accidents in the use of LNG affecting both human life and the environment, it is necessary to carry out risk assessment studies both for the storage installation and for the various operations that take place during the bunkering of ships. In this context, several studies have been developed focusing on the establishment of risk assessment guidelines for the safe use of LNG in port bunkering processes. The Seveso Directive 2012/18/EU is among the key legal documents for assessing risk and setting the requirements for safety studies. In addition, there are some International and European standards that propose risk assessment methodologies applied in the field under consideration, while obviously the classification societies and other industrial associations have dealt with the development of relevant guidelines. All the above guidelines are being reported, analyzed and reviewed in this paper.
Aneziris O., Gerbec M., Koromila IA., Nivolianitou Z., Salzano E. Safety and Security of Ports with LNG Bunkering Systems. In Proceedings of the 29th European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2019), 22 – 26 September 2019, Hannover, Germany.
Abstract: In this paper the main achievements of the project entitled “Sustainable Performance of LNG based maritime based mobility” (SUPER-LNG) financed by the Adriatic Ionian Interreg framework and the project “Risk management system for design and operation of installations for LNG refuelling” (TRiTON) financed by the Greek government are presented and discussed. Both projects address safety and security issues in ports, owing to LNG fuelling of ships which is replacing traditional fuels, since LNG produces lower environmental emissions. First the LNG storage facilities and bunkering modes at ports are presented followed by the European Regulatory framework. High level instrument regulations, standards and guidelines referring to risk assessment methods for LNG storage and bunkering facilities are presented A literature review in risk assessment of ports storing and transferring LNG is conducted, as well. . Finally, the structure of Guidelines, which are under development, for risk reporting of port facilities are presented focusing on the risk assessment methods and results.
Aneziris O., Koromila IA., Nivolianitou Z. LNG as marine fuel – safety at ports. In Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the International Association of Maritime Economists (IAME 2019), 25-28 June 2019, Athens, Greece.
Abstract: In this paper the main achievements of the project entitled “Sustainable Performance of LNG based maritime based mobility” (SUPER-LNG) financed by the Adriatic Ionian Interreg framework are presented and discussed. The project addresses safety and security issues in ports of the Adriatic Ionian area, owing to LNG fuelling of ships which is replacing traditional fuels, since LNG produces lower environmental emissions. First the LNG storage facilities and bunkering modes at ports are presented followed by the European regulatory
framework. High level instrument regulations, standards and guidelines are presented as well as literature review in risk assessment of ports storing and transferring LNG. Regulations, standards and guidelines referring to risk assessment methods for LNG storage and bunkering
facilities are identified.